Metal forming is a process that alters the shape of a metal workpiece using pressure and heat. It preserves the workpiece’s mass, cohesion and metallurgical properties. Forming is a critical step in a metalworking process, since it requires high stresses to produce a shaped part. The process is commonly used to fabricate structural and decorative parts. Various forming operations are used to create different shapes.
There are three basic models of forming processes. They are compressive forming, tensile forming and rolling. Each has its own advantages. Roll forming is suited for producing long parts.
Incremental forming is a new metalworking technology that offers a variety of benefits. It can be used to produce complex 3-D shapes. This process is especially useful in manufacturing bespoke products, such as automotive and aerospace components. Compared to conventional forming methods, this process produces less scrap and is more energy-efficient.
The process involves heating the material to a liquid state and then shaping the material with a deforming tool. Forming is influenced by several factors, including the lubricant, the tools, the material and the medium.
Sheet metal forming is a common type of forming. Sheet metal is a thin, flat material that can be cut into a variety of shapes. In sheet forming, the deforming tool moves along the metal sheet, imparting pressure to shape the material. Typical sheet metal measures between 0.4 to 6 mm (or 1/16 to 1/4″) in thickness.
There are also several types of sheet metal forming operations. These include rolling, forging, bending and extrusion. Most cold forming operations are accompanied by work hardening.
Forming is an important step in the production of metalwork, whether it is a consumer item or a commercial piece. Its primary function is to provide the shape of the desired part, which often requires a variety of shapes.
Forming is performed with a range of manufacturing techniques, which vary by the type of metal being formed. Metal forming is divided into two categories: bulk forming and sheet forming. Bulk forming includes forging and rolling, while sheet forming is characterized by deep drawing, tensile forming, and extrusion.
In metalworking, forging is a crucial process that alters the structure of a metal component. This process also enhances the usefulness and strength of the forged part.
The forging process involves the application of heat to shape metals into the desired form. It is an important step in the manufacturing of most parts. Forging is used in industries such as agriculture, railroads and power generation.
Forging is used in many industries because of its durability and strength. However, it is often expensive for the end user. Using forging to manufacture parts requires a good deal of upfront capital.
Various types of forging processes are available. These include hot forging and cold forging. Hot forging uses a high temperature and a hot ram to shape the metal. Cold forging, on the other hand, utilizes a low heat to form the metal.
Forging tools wear over time, so proper lubrication is vital. Some commercial lubrication systems have been implemented in the industry, but they are not always effective. Researchers have tried to improve the lubrication system by developing a low-cost lubricating and cooling device, as well as a peristaltic pump. While this approach has been proven to extend tool life, it still remains a challenge for research centers.
Several studies have been conducted to determine the effects of a lubricating system on forging tool life. A variety of parameters were tested, including a lubricant dosing mechanism, lubricant feed pressure, and the life of the lubricant.
In a study of the state of the art, the authors found the best results were obtained with a new tool, which reached its optimum service life. They verified this result with industrial forging conditions. Despite the success of the lubrication system, it is believed that further development is required to provide optimal tribological conditions for specific forging applications.
Other factors such as abrasive wear and the proper cleaning procedure were also investigated. Results showed that a lubricating system with a peristaltic pump can be successfully applied in die forging shops. With the proper selection of parameters and the right cleaning procedure, tool wear can be controlled and a die forging shop can reduce the cost of operating.