The Basics of Metalworking


Metalworking is the process of shaping and reshaping metals to produce objects on every scale: from huge ships, buildings, bridges down to precise engine parts and delicate jewelry.

The historical roots of metalworking predate recorded history; it has evolved from shaping soft, native metals like gold with simple hand tools, through the smelting of ores and hot forging of harder metals like iron, up to highly technical modern processes such as machining and welding.


Fabrication is the process of creating metalwork by cutting, bending and assembling raw materials to produce finished parts. It may include processes like cutting, machining and shearing to reduce the material to the size of the final product.

Sheet metal is a common form of raw material for fabricating products, but other types of metal can be used. Some of these include copper, brass, aluminum, stainless steel and titanium.

The next step in the fabrication process is to cut a piece of raw metal into the desired shape and size. Fabricators will use a variety of tools to achieve this, including shears, punches and laser cutters.

Once a piece of metal is reduced to the desired size and shape, it may be joined with other pieces through welding or soldering. Alternatively, the metal may be cast into its final shape, which is the most commonly used form of fabrication for sheet metal.


Forging is the process of converting sheets of metal into custom shapes. It is a crucial part of the metalworking manufacturing process and is used to produce a variety of parts, including screws, bolts, valves, and more.

Forged parts are strong and resistant to fatigue and corrosion due to the forging process maintaining the grain flow of the metal. This feature is lost during other methods of metal fabrication, such as machining and casting.

Moreover, forging can be done with various materials and provides a higher strength-to-weight ratio than other methods of metalworking. This benefit can lead to reduced material costs and faster production runs.

Forging is a critical component of metal forming processes because it produces durable parts that can handle the harsh conditions of industry. Machinery, engines, and other technical equipment depend on forging to produce components that are sturdy and reliable.


Casting is a metalworking process that involves melting down metals and alloys until they become a liquid, then pouring them into a mold. It is used to create near-perfect parts with low waste.

A casting mold is a type of pattern used to define the shape of the final part. It is most commonly used to make small art pieces, but can also be used to produce one-of-a-kind items.

Investment casting (also known as lost wax casting) is a technique that has been in use for thousands of years. It is a method that uses specialty wax molds to create intricate models of the desired part.

These wax molds are then encased in ceramic to create permanent molds that can be reused many times without deterioration. This method is particularly useful for high-performance alloys and complex geometries that require repeatable production.


The process of welding metalwork involves the fusing together of two pieces of metal. During this process, a gas torch or electric welder heats the base material and then introduces filler material to complete the fusion.

A welding setup includes a variety of tools, such as welding clamps, torches, power sources, and consumable electrodes. The various components help welders to safely and efficiently fuse different types of materials.

Welding is an essential component of fabrication. It enables fabricators to create the necessary metal structures and products needed for the modern world to function.

Welding can be difficult because it requires a specific skill set and a variety of tools to accomplish the task at hand. In addition, a welding setup needs to be maintained and cleaned properly. Welding can also lead to various weld defects. These defects are caused by workmanship and metallurgy, both of which can affect the strength of the weld.

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